When is Nowruz Celebrated?

Nowruz, the Persian New Year, is a vibrant and ancient festival celebrated by millions worldwide. Rooted in Zoroastrianism, it symbolizes the arrival of spring, renewal, and the triumph of good over evil.

This festival holds immense cultural and historical significance, observed in Iran, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, and many other countries with Persian influence. Its date varies slightly each year, but its essence remains the same: a joyous celebration of life, hope, and the promise of a new beginning.

Date of Nowruz Celebration

Nowruz, the Persian New Year, is celebrated annually on the day of the vernal equinox, which typically falls on March 20 or 21 in the Northern Hemisphere. This date marks the astronomical moment when the sun crosses the celestial equator, resulting in equal hours of daylight and darkness.

The specific date of Nowruz can vary slightly from year to year due to the gradual shift in the Earth’s orbit. However, it is generally celebrated within a few days of March 20 or 21.

Variations in Date

In some regions, Nowruz is celebrated according to the Solar Hijri calendar, which is based on the Earth’s orbit around the sun. In these regions, the date of Nowruz may differ slightly from the vernal equinox due to the difference between the solar and lunar calendars.

Historical Origins of Nowruz

The origins of Nowruz can be traced back to ancient times, with its roots in the Zoroastrian religion. The festival is believed to have originated in Persia, where it was celebrated as the beginning of the new year and the triumph of good over evil.

According to Zoroastrian mythology, the world was created by the god Ahura Mazda, who appointed the prophet Zarathustra to spread his teachings. Zarathustra is said to have introduced the Nowruz festival as a way to celebrate the creation of the world and the beginning of a new era.

Nowruz in Ancient Persia

In ancient Persia, Nowruz was a major festival that was celebrated with great pomp and ceremony. The festival typically lasted for several days and included feasts, music, dancing, and games. People would also visit their families and friends and exchange gifts.

Nowruz was also a time for reflection and renewal. People would often take this opportunity to clean their homes, forgive their enemies, and make resolutions for the new year.

Nowruz in the Islamic World

After the Islamic conquest of Persia, Nowruz continued to be celebrated, although its religious significance diminished. The festival became more of a secular holiday, and it was often celebrated with the same traditions as in pre-Islamic times.

Nowruz is still celebrated in many countries today, including Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. It is a national holiday in these countries, and it is often celebrated with family gatherings, feasts, and fireworks.

Cultural Traditions and Practices

When is Nowruz celebrated

Nowruz is celebrated with a rich array of cultural traditions and practices that have been passed down through generations. These rituals and customs hold significant symbolic and cultural meanings, embodying the festival’s themes of renewal, hope, and the triumph of good over evil.

One of the most important rituals associated with Nowruz is the setting up of the Haft-Sin table. This is a ceremonial display of seven symbolic items, each beginning with the Persian letter “sin,” that represent different aspects of life and nature. The Haft-Sin table is a symbol of abundance and prosperity and is often adorned with items such as sprouts, garlic, apples, and hyacinths.

Chaharshanbe Suri

Another significant tradition is Chaharshanbe Suri, which is celebrated on the last Tuesday before Nowruz. This festival involves jumping over bonfires and setting off fireworks, symbolizing the purification of oneself and the warding off of evil spirits. People gather around bonfires, chanting and singing traditional songs, and throwing herbs and spices into the flames to create a fragrant smoke.

Sizdah Bedar

The final day of Nowruz is known as Sizdah Bedar, which translates to “thirteen out.” On this day, families and friends gather outdoors for picnics and outings, often in parks or natural settings. This tradition symbolizes the end of the Nowruz festivities and the return to everyday life. People spend the day playing games, eating traditional foods, and enjoying the fresh air.

Regional Variations of Nowruz

Nowruz is celebrated across a wide geographical area, encompassing diverse cultures and traditions. The festivities associated with the festival vary significantly from region to region, reflecting the cultural influences and historical contexts that have shaped each locale.


In Iran, Nowruz is a national holiday marked with elaborate preparations and festivities. The “Chaharshanbe Suri” (Fire Wednesday) ritual is a prelude to the festival, where bonfires are lit to symbolize the purification of the soul and the warding off of evil spirits.

The “Haft Sin” table, an arrangement of seven symbolic items beginning with the Persian letter “S,” is a central part of the Iranian Nowruz celebration. It represents renewal, abundance, and good fortune.


In Afghanistan, Nowruz is known as “Nowruz-e-Naw” and is celebrated with similar customs to those in Iran. However, there are some unique traditions as well. The “Buzkashi” game, a traditional Afghan sport involving horseback riding and a goat carcass, is often played during the festivities.

Central Asia

In Central Asian countries like Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kazakhstan, Nowruz is celebrated with a blend of ancient Zoroastrian and Islamic influences. The “Sumalak” dessert, a sweet paste made from germinated wheat, is a popular delicacy during the festival.

In Kazakhstan, the “Nauryz Kozhe” is a traditional dish made from seven different ingredients, symbolizing the seven elements of the universe.

Caucasus Region

In the Caucasus region, including Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Armenia, Nowruz is known as “Novruz Bayramı” or “Navruz.” It is celebrated with a mix of local traditions and those borrowed from neighboring countries.

In Azerbaijan, the “Novruz Meydanı” (Nowruz Square) in Baku hosts traditional performances, music, and dance.

Significance of Nowruz in Modern Society

When is Nowruz celebrated

Nowruz holds immense cultural and social significance in contemporary society. It serves as a pivotal moment for communities to come together, reaffirm their cultural identity, and celebrate the renewal of life.

Beyond its traditional roots, Nowruz has evolved to foster a sense of unity and belonging in diverse societies. It provides a platform for cultural exchange, bridging generations and fostering mutual understanding. In many countries, Nowruz is recognized as a national holiday, further underscoring its importance in modern society.

Examples of Nowruz Celebrations in Modern Contexts

In contemporary times, Nowruz is celebrated in a multitude of ways that reflect the vibrant and diverse nature of the communities that observe it.

* Public Gatherings: Large-scale public gatherings are organized in parks, squares, and community centers. These events often feature traditional music, dance, and food, creating a festive atmosphere that brings people together.
* Cultural Festivals: Many cities around the world host cultural festivals dedicated to Nowruz. These festivals showcase traditional arts, crafts, and cuisine, providing an opportunity for people to learn about and appreciate the rich cultural heritage associated with Nowruz.
* Interfaith Celebrations: In some communities, Nowruz is celebrated as an interfaith event, bringing together people of different backgrounds and beliefs. These celebrations emphasize the shared values of renewal, hope, and unity that transcend religious boundaries.

Last Word

Nowruz is not just a day or a festival; it’s a testament to the resilience and continuity of ancient traditions. It serves as a reminder of our connection to nature, our cultural heritage, and the enduring power of hope. As we celebrate Nowruz, let us embrace its message of renewal, unity, and the eternal cycle of life.

FAQ Corner

What is the exact date of Nowruz?

Nowruz falls on the first day of spring, which is usually on or around March 20 or 21 each year.

Why does the date of Nowruz change slightly?

The date of Nowruz is based on the vernal equinox, which is the moment when the sun crosses the celestial equator. This moment occurs at a slightly different time each year, hence the variation in the date of Nowruz.

Is Nowruz celebrated in all Persian-speaking countries?

Yes, Nowruz is celebrated in all Persian-speaking countries, including Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.