How is Nowruz Celebrated in Different Countries: A Journey Through Traditions and Customs

Nowruz, the Persian New Year, is a vibrant and ancient festival that heralds the arrival of spring and the renewal of life. Celebrated across the globe by communities with Persian heritage, Nowruz holds immense cultural and historical significance, with unique traditions and customs that vary from country to country.

In this exploration, we embark on a journey through different lands to discover the diverse ways in which Nowruz is celebrated, uncovering the common threads that unite these traditions while appreciating the unique cultural influences that shape their variations.


Nowruz, also known as the Persian New Year, is an ancient festival that marks the beginning of spring and the renewal of nature. It is celebrated on the first day of the month of Farvardin, which usually falls on March 20 or 21. Nowruz has been celebrated for over 3,000 years, and it is one of the most important holidays in Iran, Afghanistan, and other countries in the Persian cultural sphere.

The origins of Nowruz can be traced back to the Zoroastrian religion, which was the dominant religion in Persia before the arrival of Islam. Zoroastrians believed that the world was created by Ahura Mazda, the god of light and goodness, and that Nowruz marked the day when Ahura Mazda defeated Angra Mainyu, the god of darkness and evil.

Celebrations in Different Countries


In Iran, Nowruz is celebrated with great enthusiasm and follows traditional customs and rituals. The Haft-Sin table, a centerpiece of the festivities, holds symbolic items representing renewal and prosperity. Music, dance, and poetry play an integral role, adding to the vibrant atmosphere of the celebrations.

– Afghanistan

Nowruz marks the beginning of spring and is a time for celebration in Afghanistan. The festival is observed with traditional customs and rituals that have been passed down for generations.

Families gather to celebrate Nowruz, and the day is marked by the preparation of special dishes and treats. Traditional foods include haft-sin, a spread of seven symbolic items, and sabzi chalau, a rice dish with herbs and spices.

Community events are also held during Nowruz, including music and dance performances, and sporting competitions. The festival is a time for people to come together and celebrate the arrival of spring and the renewal of life.

– Tajikistan

Nowruz is celebrated with great enthusiasm in Tajikistan, a country with a rich Persian heritage. The festivities commence with the traditional “Khuftan” ceremony, where people gather around a bonfire and jump over it for good luck and purification. Traditional games and sports, such as horse racing, wrestling, and tug-of-war, are also popular during this time.

– Role of Fire

Fire holds a significant place in Nowruz celebrations in Tajikistan. Bonfires are lit on the eve of Nowruz, symbolizing the triumph of light over darkness. People gather around these fires, sing songs, and dance, creating a warm and festive atmosphere. The flames are believed to possess purifying and protective qualities, and it is customary to jump over them for good fortune and to ward off evil spirits.

– Other Countries

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Nowruz is also widely celebrated in other countries beyond the Caspian Sea region, including Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Iraq. In these countries, Nowruz has unique traditions and customs that reflect their respective cultures.


In Azerbaijan, Nowruz is known as Novruz and is celebrated with great enthusiasm. The festivities typically begin on March 20th and last for several days. One of the most popular traditions is the “Khoncha,” a table spread with seven symbolic items representing fertility, abundance, and good fortune. Azerbaijanis also engage in traditional games, such as “Novruz Topu” (a ball game) and “Keçəl” (a form of wrestling).


In Turkey, Nowruz is known as Nevruz and is celebrated on March 21st. It is a time for family gatherings, feasting, and the exchange of gifts. A unique tradition in Turkey is the “Nevruz Ateşi” (Nowruz Fire), which is lit on the eve of the festival to symbolize the renewal of life and the triumph of good over evil.


In Iraq, Nowruz is known as Newroz and is celebrated by both Kurds and Arabs. The festivities typically involve traditional music, dancing, and the preparation of special dishes. In the Kurdish region of Iraq, a popular tradition is the “Newroz Sarma,” a dish made from grape leaves stuffed with rice, meat, and spices.

Commonalities and Differences

Across different countries, Nowruz celebrations share a common thread of renewal, rebirth, and the triumph of good over evil. However, cultural influences have shaped variations in the way the festival is observed.

One shared tradition is the “haft sin” table, a symbolic arrangement of seven items representing different aspects of life and prosperity. The items vary slightly by region but typically include wheat, vinegar, garlic, apples, coins, herbs, and a mirror.

Rituals associated with fire and water are also common. The “chaharshanbe suri” bonfire, held on the eve of Nowruz, symbolizes the cleansing of evil and negativity. Water is also used for purification, with people splashing water on each other or washing their hands and faces in a symbolic gesture of renewal.

Regional Variations

Despite the shared traditions, there are notable variations in how Nowruz is celebrated in different countries:

  • Afghanistan: In Afghanistan, Nowruz is a major national holiday and is celebrated with feasts, dancing, and music. A traditional Afghan dish called “samanak” is prepared, a sweet pudding made from wheat germ.
  • Tajikistan: In Tajikistan, Nowruz is celebrated with a traditional horse race called “buzkashi,” where riders compete to capture a goat carcass. A dish called “sumalak,” a pudding made from wheat and sugar, is also prepared.
  • Other Countries: In other countries where Nowruz is observed, such as Iran, Iraq, and Turkey, celebrations vary depending on local customs and traditions. However, the core elements of renewal and rebirth remain constant.

Cultural Significance

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Nowruz holds immense cultural significance in the countries where it is celebrated. It is a time for renewal, rebirth, and the celebration of life. The festival promotes unity, community, and cultural heritage. It serves as a reminder of shared traditions and values, fostering a sense of belonging and identity among people from diverse backgrounds.

Unity and Community

Nowruz brings people together, regardless of their religious or ethnic affiliations. It is a time for families and friends to gather, share meals, and engage in traditional activities. The festival promotes cooperation and collaboration, as communities work together to prepare for and celebrate Nowruz.

Cultural Heritage

Nowruz is a living testament to the rich cultural heritage of the countries where it is celebrated. It has been passed down through generations, preserving ancient traditions and customs. The festival showcases traditional music, dance, food, and games, ensuring that these cultural practices continue to thrive.

Cultural Exchange

Nowruz has been instrumental in fostering cultural exchange and understanding. As people from different countries celebrate the festival together, they share their traditions and customs, promoting cross-cultural dialogue and appreciation. The festival has played a significant role in building bridges between communities and promoting peace and harmony.


In conclusion, Nowruz is a vibrant and multifaceted celebration observed by diverse cultures across the globe. It symbolizes the arrival of spring, renewal, and the triumph of good over evil. The festivities associated with Nowruz vary from country to country, reflecting the unique traditions and customs of each region.

The commonalities and differences in Nowruz celebrations highlight the richness and diversity of human cultures. It is a reminder of the importance of preserving and celebrating cultural traditions that connect us to our past and shape our present.

Final Thoughts

Nowruz stands as a testament to the enduring power of cultural traditions, connecting communities across borders and generations. Its celebration serves as a reminder of our shared human experiences, fostering unity, cultural exchange, and a deep appreciation for our heritage. As we continue to preserve and celebrate these traditions, we not only honor our past but also sow the seeds for a future rich in cultural diversity and understanding.

Common Queries

What is the significance of the Haft-Sin table in Iranian Nowruz celebrations?

The Haft-Sin table is a central element of Iranian Nowruz celebrations, featuring seven symbolic items that begin with the Persian letter “sin.” These items represent renewal, prosperity, and good fortune, and include items like apples (sib), garlic (sir), and sumac (somāq).

How is Nowruz celebrated in Afghanistan?

In Afghanistan, Nowruz is a time for family gatherings and community events. Traditional foods like sabzi challow (herbed rice) and Haft Mewa (a dish of seven dried fruits) are prepared, and people engage in traditional games like buzkashi (goat-grabbing) and kite flying.

What is the role of fire in Tajik Nowruz celebrations?

Fire holds great significance in Tajik Nowruz celebrations. Bonfires are lit on the eve of Nowruz, symbolizing the purification and renewal of the year. People jump over the fires for good luck and to ward off evil spirits.

How is Nowruz celebrated in other countries where it is observed?

Nowruz is celebrated in various countries beyond Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, including Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Iraq. In Azerbaijan, the holiday is known as Novruz and is marked by traditional music, dance, and the preparation of special dishes like plov (rice pilaf).